Irish flora and fauna endangered list

Native flora and fauna are at a critical stage in the Irish county side, due to over use and management of the  land.

There are extensive lists of species that are now extinct, critical, vulnerable and protected.  It is vital to check these lists when thinking about using some of the less common native plants.  There is 188 plants on the Red Data list of protected Irish plants, see below.

Some of the other protected species are: 

  • Freshwater pearl mussel – critically endangered

  • Lesser horseshoe bat – near threatened 'all bats are protected'

  • Otter – near threatened

  • Hen harrier – amber status

  • Kerry slug – favourable conservation status but Irish population is important in a global context as the Iberian populations are severely threatened.

  • Red squirrel  – near threatened

The Red Data List of Irish Plants - Botanicgardens.ie

The risks that species face are each very different, however, as a guide to the susceptibility of a given species, an agreed set of categories has been established internationally, and these are used to determine the potential risk that a species could become extinct. These categories are:-

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED or CR - Species that are declining at a fast rate, and face imminent risk of extinction.
ENDANGERED or E - Species that are declining, or grow in habitats likely to be disturbed, 'developed' or facing an ongoing degradation.

VULNERABLE or V - Species that are currently not endangered, but would be extremely vulnerable if their habitats are disturbed in the future.

There are seven species of plant that require immediate intervention (CR) if we are to save them from joining the fate of 11 other species that are now known to be extinct in Ireland.
A number of these are already extinct in the Republic, and are not therefore legally protected under the 1999 Flora Protection Act.

In the list below, 188 species of plant are listed, of which 64 are flowering plants, 4 ferns, 14 mosses, 4 liverworts, 1 lichen and 2 algae.

Protected=1999 Flora Protection Order; (protected)= formerly protected by 1987 Order; 
 {protected}= formerly protected by 1980 Order; (NI)= protected in Northern Ireland only.

EXTINCT (9)

Pheasant's-eye

Adonis annua

Corncockle

Agrostemma githago

Cogal

Corn Chamomile

Anthemis arvensis

Fíogadán goirt

Purple Spurge

Euphorbia peplis

Spuirse dhearg

Sea Stock

Matthiola sinuata

Tonóg chladaigh

Shepherd's-needle

Scandix pecten-veneris

Gob an ghoirt

Rannoch-rush

Scheuchzeria palustris

Luachair an Phollaigh

Saw-wort

Serratula tinctoria

Sábhlus

EXTINCT IN THE WILD (2)

Club Sedge

Carex buxbaumii

Cíb ghorm

Scaly Buckler-fern

Dryopteris remota

--

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (7)

Divided Sedge Carex divisa Cíb ghabhlach Protected

Meadow Saffron Colchicum autumnale Cróch an fhómhair Protected

Serrated Wintergreen

Orthilia secunda

Glasluibh fhiaclach

(NI)

Cottonweed

Otanthus maritimus

Cluasach mhara

Protected

Rough Poppy

Papaver hybridum

Bláth na mbodach

Protected

Meadow Saxifrage

Saxifraga granulata

Mórán léana

Protected

Marsh Saxifrage

Saxifraga hirculus

Mórán réisc

ENDANGERED (52)

Moschatel

Adoxa moschatellina

Moscadal

Narrow Small-reed

Calamagrostis stricta

Giolc beag

(NI)

Nettle-leaved Bellflower

Campanula trachelium

Scornlus

Few-flowered Sedge

Carex pauciflora

Cíb scáinte

(NI)

Cornflower

Centaurea cyanus

Gormán

Seaside Centaury

Centaurium littorale

Dréimire trá

(NI)

Lesser Centaury

Centaurium pulchellum

Dréimire beag

Protected

Narrow-leaved Helleborine

Cephalanthera longifolia

Cuaichín caol

Protected

Bog Hair-grass

Deschampsia setacea

Móinfhéar seascainn

Protected

Dwarf Spike-rush

Eleocharis parvula

Spícíneach bheag

(NI)

Green-flowered Helleborine

Epipactis phyllanthes

Cuaichín glas

(NI)

Dorset Heath

Erica ciliaris

Fraoch frainseach

(protected)

Cornish Heath

Erica vagans

Fraoch gallda

(NI)

Blue Fleabane

Erigeron acer

Lus gorm na ndreancaidí

(NI)

Slender Cottongrass

Eriophorum gracile

Ceannbhán caol

Protected

Red Hemp-nettle

Galeopsis angustifolia

Ga corcra

Protected

Little-Robin

Geranium purpureum

Eireaball rí

{protected}

Round-leaved Crane's-bill

Geranium rotundifolium

Crobh cruinn

Wood Crane's-bill

Geranium sylvaticum

Crobh coille

Opposite-leaved Pondweed

Groenlandia densa

Líobhógach dlúth

Protected

Oak Fern

Gymnocarpium dryopteris

Raithneach dharach

Limestone Fern

Gymnocarpium robertianum

Raithneach aolchloiche

Protected

Bog Orchid

Hammarbya paludosa

Magairlín na móna

Protected

Meadow Barley

Hordeum secalinum

Eorna mhóinéir

Protected

Hydrilla

Hydrilla verticillata

Ilphéistein fáinneach

Protected

Hairy St John's-wort

Hypericum hirsutum

Lus an fhógra

Protected

Irish Fleabane

Inula salicina

Lus gréine gaelach

Protected

Sharp-leaved Fluellen

Kickxia elatine

Buaflíon Breatnach

(protected)

Darnel

Lolium temulentum

Roille

Small Cow-wheat

Melampyrum sylvaticum

Lus sagairt beag

Pennyroyal

Mentha pulegium

Borógach

Protected

Weasel's-snout

Misopates orontium

Srubh lao beag

Protected

Slender Naiad

Najas flexilis

Síofróg uisce

Protected

Green-winged Orchid

Orchis morio

Magairlín féitheach

(protected)

Pillwort

Pilularia globulifera

Lus an phiollaire

Protected

Small-white Orchid

Pseudorchis albida

Magairlín bán

Protected

Round-leaved Wintergreen

Pyrola rotundifolia subsp. maritima

Glasluibh chruinn

Protected

Cloudberry

Rubus chamaemorus

Eithreog shléibhe

(NI)

Great Burnet

Sanguisorba officinalis

Lus an uille mór

Protected

Perennial Glasswort

Sarcocornia perennis

Lus gloine buan

Protected

Triangular Club-rush

Schoenoplectus triqueter

Bogshifín tríchúinneach

Protected

Green Figwort

Scrophularia umbrosa

Donnlus glas

Kerry Lily

Simethis planifolia

Lile Fhíonáin

Protected

Irish Lady's-tresses

Spiranthes romanzoffiana

Cúilín gaelach

Protected

Betony

Stachys officinalis

Lus beatha

Protected

Killarney Fern

Trichomanes speciosum

Raithneach Chill Airne

Protected

Clustered Clover

Trifolium glomeratum

Seamair chlibíneach

Protected

Subterranean Clover

Trifolium subterraneum

Seamair faoi thalamh

Protected

Globeflower

Trollius europaeus

Leolach

Protected

Hairy Violet

Viola hirta

Sailchuach ghiobach

Protected

Pale Dog-violet

Viola lactea

Sailchuach liath

Protected

VULNERABLE (69)

Pyramidal Bugle

Ajuga pyramidalis

Glasair bheannach

(NI)

Alpine Lady's-mantle

Alchemilla alpina

Bratóg Mhuire

Chives

Allium schoenoprasum

Síobhas

Protected

Fringed Sandwort

Arenaria ciliata

Gaineamhlus gaelach

Protected

Arctic Sandwort

Arenaria norvegica subsp. norvegica

Gaineamhlus Artach

Wild Asparagus

Asparagus officinalis subsp. prostratus

Lus súgach

Protected

Forked Spleenwort

Asplenium septentrionale

Fionncha ladhrach

Protected

Purple Milk-vetch

Astragalus danicus

Bleachtphiseán

Protected

Smooth Brome

Bromus racemosus

Brómas mín

Wood Small-reed

Calamagrostis epigejos

Giolc

Protected

Short-leaved Water- starwort

Callitriche truncata

Réiltín scoite

Protected

Large Bitter-cress

Cardamine amara

Seilín cuaiche

Narrow-leaved Bitter-cress

Cardamine impatiens

Searbh-bhiolar caol

Protected

Starved Wood-sedge

Carex depauperata

Cíb choille bhocht

Protected

Tall Bog-sedge

Carex magellanica

Cíb bhocht

(NI)

Melancholy Thistle

Cirsium heterophyllum

Cluasán fia

(NI)

Parsley Fern

Cryptogramma crispa

Raithneach chas

Protected

Hoary Whitlowgrass

Draba incana

Araflasach

Eight-stamened Waterwort

Elatine hydropiper

Bosán te

(NI)

Chickweed Willowherb

Epilobium alsinifolium

Saileachán sléibhe

Protected

Shade Horsetail

Equisetum pratense

Scuab eich mhóinéir

Mackay's Heath

Erica mackaiana

Fraoch Mhic Aoidh

Dropwort

Filipendula vulgaris

Lus braonach

Alder Buckthorn

Frangula alnus

Draighean fearna

(NI)

Heath Cudweed

Gnaphalium sylvaticum

Gnamhlus móna

Protected

Common Rock-rose

Helianthemum nummularium

Grianrós

Protected

Hoary rock-rose

Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. piloselloides

Grianrós liath

{protected}

Holy-grass

Hierochloe odorata

Féar Muire

(NI)

Water-violet

Hottonia palustris

Cleiteán uisce

(NI)

Henbane

Hyoscyamus niger

Gafann

Irish St John's-wort

Hypericum canadense

Beathnua gaelach

Protected

Round-fruited Rush

Juncus compressus

Luachair chruinn

Yellow Archangel

Lamiastrum galeobdolon subsp. montanum

Neantóg Mhuire

Scots Lovage

Ligusticum scoticum

Sunais

Mudwort

Limosella aquatica

Lus lathaí

Protected

Hairy Bird's-foot-trefoil

Lotus subbiflorus

Crobh éin mosach

Protected

Marsh Clubmoss

Lycopodiella inundata

Garbhógach chorraigh

Protected

Oysterplant

Mertensia maritima

Lus na sceallaí

Protected

Recurved Sandwort

Minuartia recurva

Gaineamhlus cuar

Protected

Yellow Bird's-nest

Monotropa hypopitys

Buíán sailí

Corky-fruited Water- dropwort

Oenanthe pimpinelloides

Dathabha ainíse

(protected)

Bird's-foot

Ornithopus perpusillus

Crúba éin

(protected)

Greater Broomrape

Orobanche rapum-genistae

Múchóg chapaill

{protected}

Alpine Meadow-grass

Poa alpina

Cuisce Alpach

{protected}

Swamp Meadow-grass

Poa palustris

Cuise réisc

Sea Knotgrass

Polygonum maritimum

Glúineach mhara

(protected)

Holly-fern

Polystichum lonchitis

Ibheag dheilgneach

(NI)

Shrubby Cinquefoil

Potentilla fruticosa

Tor cúigmhéarach

Borrer's Saltmarsh-grass

Puccinellia fasciculata

Féar muirisce triopallach

Protected

Intermediate Wintergreen

Pyrola media

Glasluibh bheag

Round-leaved Wintergreen

Pyrola rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia

Glasluibh chruinn

River Water-crowfoot

Ranunculus fluitans

Néal uisce abhann

(NI)

Three-lobed Crowfoot

Ranunculus tripartitus

Néal uisce na dtrí chluas

(protected)

Northern Yellow-cress

Rorippa islandica

Biolar buí na Boirne

{protected}

Golden Dock

Rumex maritimus

Copóg bhuí

Tea-leaved Willow

Salix phylicifolia

Saileacha ghaelach

{protected}

Wild Clary

Salvia verbenaca

Tormán

{protected}

Alpine Saw-wort

Saussurea alpina

Sábhlus sléibhe

(NI)

Yellow Saxifrage

Saxifraga aizoides

Mórán buí

(NI)

Alpine Saxifrage

Saxifraga nivalis

Mórán an tsneachta

Protected

Purple Saxifrage

Saxifraga oppositifolia

Mórán sléibhe

(NI)

Hart's saxifrage

Saxifraga hartii

Mórán creige

Protected

Cornish Moneywort

Sibthorpia europaea

Pinguin Dhuibhneach

Moss Campion

Silene acaulis

Coireán caonaigh

(NI)

Dandelion

Taraxacum gotlandicum

Caisearbhán

{protected}

Shepherd's Cress

Teesdalia nudicaulis

Lus an bhuachalla

(NI)

Spotted Rock-rose

Tuberaria guttata

Grianrós breac

Spring Vetch

Vicia lathyroides

Peasair earraigh

Fen Violet

Viola persicifolia

Sailchuach uisce

(NI)

Data Deficient Species

Orange Foxtail

Alopecurus aequalis

--

Protected

Northern Rock-cress

Arabis petraea

Gas caillí Artach

Protected

Lanceolate Spleenwort

Asplenium obovatum

Fionncha lansach

Protected

Basil Thyme

Clinopodium acinos

Lus mhic rhí Breatan

Protected

Moore's horsetail

Equisetum hyemale × ramosissimum = E. × moorei

Scuab eich an Mhóraigh

Protected

Small Cudweed

Filago minima

Cáithluibh bheag

Protected

Wood Barley

Hordelymus europaeus

Eorna choille

Smooth Cat's-ear

Hypochaeris glabra

Cluas chait mhín

(NI)

Sea Pea

Lathyrus japonicus

Peasairín trá

Protected

Tall Rock Sea-lavender

Limonium procerum

Lus liath ard

Rock Sea-lavender

Limonium recurvum subsp. paradoxum

Lus liath Albanach

{protected}

Rock Sea-lavender

Limonium recurvum subsp. portlandicum

Lus liath aille

Western Sea-lavender

Limonium recurvum subsp. pseudotranswallianum

Lus liath na Boirne

{protected}

Alpine Bistort

Persicaria vivipara

Glúineach shléibhe

Protected

Annual Knawel

Scleranthus annuus

Cabhair Mhuire

Protected

Wood Bitter-vetch

Vicia orobus

Peasair shearbh

Protected

Species not considered threatened in the Republic, but protected in NI

Bog-rosemary

Andromeda polifolia

Lus na móinte

(NI)

Elongated Sedge

Carex elongata

Cíb ard

Sea-kale

Crambe maritima

Praiseach thrá

{protected}

Narrow-leaved Marsh- orchid

Dactylorhiza traunsteineri

Magairlín caol

(NI)

Mountain Avens

Dryas octopetala

Leaithín

(NI)

Marsh Helleborine

Epipactis palustris

Cuaichín corraigh

(NI)

Marsh Pea

Lathyrus palustris

Peasairín corraigh

(NI)

Rock Sea-lavender

Limonium binervosum agg.

Lus liath aille

(NI)

Bird's-nest Orchid

Neottia nidus-avis

Magairlín neide éin

Bee Orchid

Ophrys apifera

Magairlín na mbeach

(NI)

Ivy Broomrape

Orobanche hederae

Múchóg mhór

Cowslip

Primula veris

Bainne bó bleachtáin

(NI)

Bird Cherry

Prunus padus

Donnroisc

Blue-eyed-grass

Sisyrinchium bermudiana

Feilistrín gorm

(NI)

PROTECTED MOSSES

Bryum calophyllum

Protected

Bryum marratii

Protected

Catoscopium nigritum

Protected

Hamatocaulis vernicosus

Protected

Leptobarbula berica

Protected

Orthotrichum pallens

Protected

Orthotrichum sprucei

Protected

Orthotrichum stramineum

Protected

Paludella squarrosa

Protected

Tetraplodon angustatus

Protected

Tortella inclinata

Protected

Tortula wilsonii

Protected

Weissia longifolia

Protected

Weissia rostellata

Protected

PROTECTED LIVERWORTS

Leiocolea gillmanii

Protected

Leiocolea rutheana

Protected

Petalophyllum ralfsii

Protected

Plagiochila atlantica

Protected

PROTECTED LICHEN

Fulgensia fulgens Protected

PROTECTED STONEWORTS

Lamprothamnium papulosum

Protected

Nitella gracilis

Protected